Ground


Ground refers to the surface of the earth or any other landing surface, including runways, taxiways, aprons, and parking areas, where aircraft can move or be parked. Ground operations are an essential part of aviation, including aircraft movements on the ground, such as taxiing, towing, and pushback. Ground handling services are provided by ground handling agents, including baggage handling, fueling, catering, and cleaning. Ground control is a part of air traffic control that manages aircraft movements on the ground, including taxiing, takeoff, and landing. Ground proximity refers to the distance between an aircraft and the ground during flight. Ground effect is the increased lift and decreased drag experienced by an aircraft when flying close to the ground.


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